HOMER ‘THE ODYSSEY’ BOOK VI INTRODUCTION A close look at book V1 and others in Homers Odyssey may lead us to this observation. Far be it from one to lay blame at the door of a Goddess but as far as Nausicaa is concerned surely Athena did contribute by leading the poor girl on to … Read More»


The use of pictographs was a very primitive form of communication that took lots of time and energy to inscribe. They did not describe the subject in great detail whereas in the English language you can describe the subject in great detail with little or no effort.

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Cluniac Monasticism

The nature of Cluny lay in the circumstances of it’s foundation. It was endowed with a measure of independence by it’s founder, Duke William, allowing the monks to elect their own abbot, placing the abbey directly under the guardianship of St Peter and the Apostolic See. As a house dedicated to reviving strict Benedictine observance … Read More»

The Mayans Way Of Life

The Mayans are American Indian people who lived in southern Mexico (Miller “Maya” Grolier). The Yucatan was the center of the Mayan civilization from about the 1st century B.C. (“Yucantan” Grolier). They flourished in Mexico and central America from 250 to 1600 A.D. (“History of Agriculture” Grolier). Their ancestors had crossed the Bering land Bridge … Read More»

The Highland Clearances Re-examined

The very idea of such a golden age is dubious. The clanship was very much a lawless society with constant jockeying for power between warring clans. The Southern Scots regarded Highlanders as primitive murderous barbarians and with good reason. In an earlier attempt to indoctrinate the Highlanders into the Southern way of life settlers from … Read More»

The Great Pyramid of Egypt

A pyramid is an enormous construction, which helps the king go through immortality and the wall of the dead and live forever in the happiness of the gods. The Ancient Pyramids of Egypt will always remind us of the architectural accomplishments of Egypt’s Old Kingdom. A pyramid drew resources from throughout the king’s domain and … Read More»

The First Crusade

The Crusades were Christian military expeditions undertaken between the 11th and the 14th century to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. The word crusade, which is derived from the Latin crux (“cross”) , is a reference to the biblical injunction that Christians carry their cross . Crusaders wore a red cloth cross sewn on … Read More»

The Emporer Caesar

Julius Caesar was born as Groyxo Gaul in 54BC into an immigrant family in the back streets of Rome. Neither parent was rich. The German historian Guildo Horn noted: “Seine Mutter war ein Hamster und sein Vater, der von den Holunderbeeren gerochen wurde.” They were as flotsam and jetsam on the beach. His early years … Read More»

The Crusades

The causes of the Crusades were many and complex, but prevailing religious beliefs were clearly of major importance. The Crusaders continued an older tradition of the pilgrimage to the Holy Land, which was often imposed as a penalty; however, they assumed a dual role as pilgrims and warriors. Such an armed pilgrimage was regarded as … Read More»

Ramses II

Ramses II is, however, best known for all the buildings he had constructed in his name across the country.Especially the monumental temples of Karnak and Abu Simbel , and his mortuary temple The Ramesseum give evidence of his love for Grandeur.In all of his monuments he had his name cartouche and texts engraved so deep … Read More»