Does Graham’s essay point the way to solving the problemsof democratic rule first identified by Plato?

According to Graham(2002), in the description of democracy three indispensable elements should be singled out (p.21). They are the sovereign character of the people, common suffrage as well as decision-making by majority. One could see that these aspects are without a doubt crucial elements by picturing a governmental system where they are omitted. No matter how serene and wealthy a culture could be, how civilized its authorities, and no matter what liberties it could provide its individuals, in case it is one wherein no elections including the general public are organized, in which political levers of power are sealed to all except a fairly tiny top-notch layer, and where governmental decisions rest inevitably in the control of a solitary great chief, it can’t be referred to as democratic (Graham, 2002, p.21).

That is, actually, the type of culture that Plato talks about in “The Republic” and he guards it particularly from the democratic order that worked in Athens. According to Gordon (2002),

“In many minds, no doubt, there lurks the vague idea that, since ancient Athens was the birthplace of democracy, and Plato its most famous philosopher, Plato’s Republic must be a democracy. Nothing could be further from the truth.” (p.21)

In “The Republic” Plato is adamantly opposed to Athens’ democracy and and is overtaken by the thought that a well-organized community is one wherein absolute power should be used by individuals particularly educated to use it – the philosophers, telling everyone his place and the scope of activity, as they see fit. It might be regarded as some form of fascism these days. Yet Plato’s statement still puts us in a predicament.

The perception that the will of the individuals need to dominate produces a paradox. One can effortlessly envision situations wherein the logical voter is required to believe that both a guideline as well as its antipode must be implemented. This can be shown by the example Graham suggests about Sterling and Euro (p.29). England came across a choice involving getting accepted into the only European currency or staying with Sterling. For a number of years, authorities spoke about tests that had to be done if getting started with the Euro was to be beneficial. As soon as those tests were fulfilled, the problem would be positioned before the nation and resolved during a referendum. Being a reasonable voter, one would attain and evaluate the appropriate data and make a decision that Britain should get into the Euro zone. This choice to vote would not be an independent occasion. It is the step that communicates a personal viewpoint on the problem.

Nonetheless , we will consider, the referendum moves differently and an obviously largest percentage vote to preserve Sterling. Possibly a good number of voters were unaware of the financial concerns, or were merely against Europe, or contemplating about the direct effect upon on them. The issue that challenges us here comes up even when all voters …
Posted by: Shalonda Fogel

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