Infectious Diseases

Throughout many centuries viral infections were and remain the most dangerous diseases of a human body because of their ability to involve a large number of healthy people during the short period of time.

Intra hospital infections are caused by the bacteria and fungi; they develop at the patients against immune suppression background. A high percentile of the viral infections acquired in hospital is caused by the following factors: hyper sensibility; the use of the invasive methods of diagnostics and treatment; the application of the invasive surgical diagnostic procedures; a large number of the sources of infection, and the use of antibiotics.

The optimal hygienic conditions are, first of all, necessary for all medical processes and the fastest recovery of patients. Hygienic conditions are the integral elements of the regime, the basis of which consists of the events supporting the sick people with a full somatic and psychotic comfort. Hygienic conditions compose the important precondition for the prevention of the hospital infections. The struggle with a hospital infection is urgent not only for the viral, but also for surgical and other infections.

There is the growth of viral infections in hospitals; they are called the “plague of the hospitals of the 20th century”. Thus, in the USA a hospital infection affects 6.3 % of all the patients in hospitals. At the same time all researchers steadily emphasize that the basis of the prevention of a hospital infection is composed by the sanitary and other complications.

The medical personnel should adhere to the following rules of personal hygiene:

– neat appearance;

– a doctor’s smock;

– a hat or a kerchief on head;

– neatly cut nails;

– special hospital footwear which is easily disinfected (for example, leather shoes);

– well washed up hands;

– it is forbidden for the nurses and doctors to wear watch, rings, or enamel while surgical manipulations;

– mask should be put according to indications. It is necessary to change a gauze mask each 4 hours; it is possible to use disposable sterile masks.

The transfusion of blood and its fractions, which did not pass tests for AIDS, hepatitis and syphilis, is forbidden. The blood transfusion is carried out with the observance of all necessary aseptic measures. The blood transfusion (usually no more than 0.5 liter) should be conducted at the temperature +5 – +8 degrees after the mixture with the preserving substance. An expiration date of such blood constitutes 21 days. The erythrocyte mass frozen at the temperature of -196 degrees can be used within several years.

The infusion of blood or its fractions is allowed exclusively at the coincidence of the Rhesus factor of the donor and the recipient. The infusion of a negative Rhesus factor blood of the first group to the person with any blood group in the volume to 0.5 liter is possible in case of need. The negative Rhesus factor blood of the second and third group can be transfused to the person with the second, third and fourth groups, regardless of the Rhesus factor. The blood of any group can be infused to …
Posted by: Emanuel Cruickshank

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