From the moment we are born to the day we die, we are constantly learning. Some may think
that learning is solely associated with school and or specific training regimens. Some
people say they hate learning new things yet they know how to use all the latest technical
devices. Even the defiant teenager who refuses to cooperate in class or participate in the
discussion is learning. He or she is testing the instructor.
The differences between operant conditioning and observational learning are:-
Operant conditioning: is based on what happens after we voluntarily perform a behavior.
Observational Learning: is to learn new behavior by watching others.
Operant conditioning: At the work, one of your co-workers is having trouble with
understanding the job. So, you voluntarily helped him/her out. That’s increases your
reputation in the work place. After doing that you will get positive from your coworkers.
Observational learning: At the workplace, it is forbidden to do something that you’ve
never done it before. That’s why, before you start working on something new, ask someone
who knows about that job to show you how to do it. So, you can learn and will be able do
Prejudice is a learned, generally negative attitude directed toward specific people solely
because of their membership in an identified group. Classical conditioning is involuntary
responses and operant conditioning is voluntary but we are rewarded or punished for our
behavior. You could be overhearing people talk bad about someone and automatically think
those people are not the type you would want to be friends with since they are talking bad
about someone. Or you can just hear rumors about someone and automatically not like that
person. Operant conditioning refers to alteration of behavior by regulating the
consequences following it. Reinforcement in is a kind of consequence or a procedure that
specifically leads to an increase in frequency of the behavior immediately preceding it.
When people gain acceptance from the individual’s reference group by discriminating
towards another groups or individual, they would then be motivated to continue this
discrimination due to the reinforcement following it. Although, empirical results often
showed significant correlation between parents’ and child’s attitude, the correlations
were typically low, especially after the child grow up. This suggests that learning theory
can only explain part of the reason behind prejudice. Moreover, learning theorists
suggested prejudice to be learned from others and therefore unable to explain how
prejudice emerges from the very beginning.
In a world as fast changing and full of information as our own, every one of us — from
schoolchildren to college students to working adults — needs to know how to learn well.
Yet evidence suggests that most of us don’t use the learning techniques that science has
proved most effective. Worse, research finds that learning strategies we do commonly
employ, like rereading and highlighting, are among the least effective. Memory is the
process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows
information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical